Domoic Acid and Sea Lions
From Beachapediablooms. Domoic acid was not discovered until the late 1980s, and scientists still don't understand why or when the algae blooms occur, nor can they predict which blooms will produce toxins and when they will impact wildlife. What is known is that anchovies, sardines, clams, mussels and other sea life ingest the algae. Then when sea lions (and to a lesser extent, dolphins) eat the anchovies and other affected sea life, they become sick.
The toxin affects the part of the brain known as the hippocampus and causes rapid deterioration. Affected sea lions exhibit head weaving, bobbing, bulging from the eyes, mucus from the mouth, disorientation and sometimes seizures. The sick sea lions are almost always female, and are often pregnant. Unfortunately, not much can be done for the affected sea lions. Treatment typically consists of injecting approximately 4 liters of an electrolyte solution containing vitamin B-12 to flush out the toxin. The mammals are also given medication to control seizures. The survival rate is only about 25% to 50%.
If you see a sea lion in distress, it's important that you don't go near, touch or feed the animal. You should contact a lifeguard or a marine mammal care center. Four such facilities exist in southern California:
Santa Barbara Marine Mammal Center
389 North Hope Avenue
Santa Barbara, CA 93110-1572
Fort MacArthur Marine Mammal Center in San Pedro
Pacific Marine Mammal Center in Laguna Beach
Sea World in San Diego
Additional Domoic Acid Information
Domoic Acid Poisoning (NOAA Fisheries)
Domoic Acid Toxicity (Marine Mammal Center)
Other Health Threats to Marine Life
Unfortunately, domoic acid is not the only health threat out there and sea lions are not the only marine species affected. Sea otters, dolphins and other marine life are also being affected by pollutants and infectious agents that run off the land into the ocean. Here's a National Geographic article that discusses this issue and specific health threats.