Reef Friendly Sunscreens

From Beachapedia


An emerging concern among ocean scientists, stewards, and beach-goers is the impact that certain chemical sunscreens are having on the marine environment. This has led to bans on the sale and use of conventional sunscreens in states like Hawaii, and island communities including Key West, Aruba and Palau. This concern has even triggered the FDA to consider removing certain popular sunscreen chemicals from the Generally Accepted as Safe (GRAS) list. As such, there has been a surge in the production of “reef friendly” sunscreens– but what does that actually mean, and how safe are these alternative sunscreens to the marine environment?

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The Risks of Conventional Sunscreens

To protect users from the damaging impacts of sun exposure, sunscreens are designed to block both UVB and UVA rays. Sunscreens are also designed to provide desired qualities such as ability to rub in to the skin, provide long-lasting protection, and be affordable. For these reasons, certain widely available chemicals are often added to sunscreen, including oxybenzone, octinoxate, and octocrylene, to name a few. Unfortunately, sunscreen doesn’t remain on our skin, when swimming or recreating in the water the lotion can rub off and enter the marine environment – becoming bioavailable to coral polyps, fish, and other humans! Studies estimate that up to 14,000 tons of sunscreen enter our marine waterways each year.

Environmental Threats

While chemicals like oxybenzone and octinoxate are effective UV blockers, and can help reduce the negative human health impacts from sun exposure, these chemicals act as endocrine disruptors and are toxic to fish and corals. Impacts can include fish deformities and reduced reproductive success,[1] and the impaired health and even death of coral polyps at a concentration of just 5 parts per billion (ppb). In popular swimming destinations, like Trunk Bay in the US Virgin Islands, water samples showed concentrations of oxybenzone as high as 1,350 ppb. Oxybenzone and octinoxate are also bioaccumulative in fish, providing the potential to increase concentrations at higher trophic levels (up the food chain).[2]

Damages to Coral Reefs

Oxybenzone is a photo-toxicant, meaning that when exposed to light, it becomes highly toxic to aquatic life. Unfortunately for coral, oxybenzone is toxic even in darkness, especially to coral polyps and larvae. Coral polyps are the building blocks of coral reef ecosystems. Healthy polyps rely on a symbiotic relationship with the algae, zooxanthelae. Increased ocean temperatures and toxic chemicals like oxybenzone and octinoxate deform and kill this symbiotic algae, causing coral bleaching and increased risk of disease and death.[3][4] Bleached and diseased coral reduce the reef’s ability to act as an important nursery and feeding ground for hundreds of marine species. Damaged reef ecosystems also lose the benefits provided by healthy, functioning reefs, such as coastal protection from storm surge, preservation of sandy beaches, breeding grounds for commercial fisheries, and recreational value from snorkeling, scuba diving and wildlife viewing.

Globally, coral reefs have experienced severe declines over the past 50 years. Warming temperatures, ocean acidification, increased turbidity from nutrient overloading (the same culprit fueling Harmful Algae Blooms), and exposure to toxic chemicals are taking their toll on these vital ecosystems. The Caribbean has lost 85% of their coral reefs in the last 50 years, with 99 percent of reefs in the Florida Keys lost. In addition to steady declines, there have also been episodic large-scale bleaching events. For instance, In 2005, the US Virgin Islands experienced a mass bleaching event that impacted 80% of hard corals in the territory, many of which never recovered.[5]

Dr. Craig Downs of the Heraeticus Laboratory tracked the progress of coral regrowth after these events, comparing results from heavily populated beaches with high concentrations of oxybenzone (Trunk Bay) to areas less frequented by tourists and snorkelers with low concentrations of oxybenzone. Dr. Downs found that during a 5 year-period, the percent settlement of coral planulae and survival of juvenile coral at highly visited reefs was 0 percent, while the less populated reef experienced high rates of recruitment and coral survival. This indicates that though corals experience a broad range of stressors and even episodic bleaching events from temperature spikes, exposure to toxic chemicals found in conventional sunscreens reduce the reefs ability to handle and recover from these events.[6] Essentially, continued exposure to these chemicals harms current corals and prevents future generations of corals.

Summary of Major Impacts to Coral Reefs[7]

  • Acts as a skeleton endocrine disruptor, encasing coral polyps in their own skeletons[8]
  • Causes gene mutations, impacting hormone regulation and damaging DNA [9]
  • Causes mortality in developing coral
  • Reduces coral reproduction
  • Reduces coral fertilization rates
  • Causes aborted embryonic development
  • Reduces the fitness of larvae and decreases their settlement and survival rate
  • Contributes to “zombie reefs”- corals that look healthy but are unable to procreate
  • Kills off the symbiotic algae in coral reefs, causing coral bleaching[10]
  • Reduces number of ovaries in each polyp
  • Reduces immunity and resiliency of corals[11]


Damages to Fish and other Marine Life

Toxic sunscreens also directly harm fish including parrotfish, wrasse, eels, and more. Oxybenzone and Octinoxate can impair neurological and reproductive abilities, increase levels of disease and miscarriages, and act as hormone disruptors impacting the immune system.

Summary of Major Impacts to Fish

  • Causes hermaphroditism and sex changes (males turn into females) in clownfish, parrotfish, moray eels, gobies, medkas, and wrasse[12]
  • Disrupts estrogen production in zebrafish[13]
  • Reduces sperm viability and fertilization of Bonnethead shark[14]
  • Increases mortality in mammals (pregnant mice), reducing immune response and disrupting hormones. May have similar impacts on marine mammals[15]
  • Reduces egg hatchings in fish and increases amount of miscarriages[16]
  • Deforms a clownfish embryo at just 1 ppb oxybenzone[17]
  • Increases reproductive disease and embryonic development of invertebrates including sea urchins[18]
  • Causes neurotoxicity in fish[19]
  • Bioaccumulates and biomagnifies in marine mammals including dolphins[20]


Human Health Threats

Some of these chemicals also pose potential threats to human health. The bioaccumulative nature of oxybenzone means that once added to and absorbed by our skin, it remains in our system. A CDC study found that 97% of the over 2,500 people tested had oxybenzone in their urine. It’s estimated that four percent of the oxybenzone in our sunscreen is absorbed by our bodies during each sunscreen application. We can also be exposed by swimming in areas where oxybenzone has been added to the marine environment, e.g. popular swimming holes.[21]

Humans can also ingest contaminated fish and drinking water (this chemical is not completely removed during treatment at wastewater treatment facilities or at drinking water treatment facilities). To note, oxybenzone is also added to plastics as a chemical photo stabilizer, and similar to other plastic additives, it can migrate from the packaging to food products contained, acting as yet another human exposure pathway.[22] Even worse, oxybenzone can be directly added to food as a “flavoring agent”.[23]

A test commissioned by the CDC found that people tested (aged 6 and up) had oxybenzone levels in their systems of 3 ppm to 15 ppb.[24] Another study on pregnant woman in Puerto Rico found concentrations of 41 to 66 ppb. Similar studies were conducted to test for octinoxate, camphor, and octocrylene, all of which found that these chemicals were absorbed into the body and present in urine, with some also found in breast milk.[25]

“The human health effects from skin exposure to low levels of BP-3 [oxybenzone] are unknown. Occasionally, wearing products containing BP-3 has resulted in a skin allergy or photo allergy, a skin reaction that occurs with exposure to sunlight. BP-3 has been shown to cause weak hormonal activity in laboratory animals. More research is needed to assess the human health effects of exposure to BP-3.” – CDC, 2009.

The Potential for Reef-Friendly Sunscreens

As an alternative to chemical-based sunscreen, mineral-based sunscreen is increasingly being promoted as a “reef friendly” alternative. While mineral-based sunscreens may be better for the marine environment than toxic chemicals, there are still environmental risks associated with their use. The two most common active ingredients in mineral-based sunscreens are zinc oxide and titanium dioxide. Zinc oxide is most effective at blocking UVA, while titanium dioxide is most effective at blocking UVB. Both are physical barriers, and are frequently used together in order to provide the full “broadband protection” from UV rays. To note, Zinc oxide is inherently broadband, as it is able to block both UVB and UVA rays.

Are Mineral-Based Sunscreens Truly Safe for Reefs?

“If you think you’re in the clear as long as you buy a sunscreen labeled 'reef safe', think again” - Dr. Craig Downs, Haereticus Laboratory

Unfortunately the terms “Reef Safe” and “Reef Friendly” are not regulated, so there is not a clear requirement for naming a product as such. It's important to actually check the ingredients label to ensure that reef-harming chemicals and particles are not included. Zinc oxide and titanium dioxide at the micro-sized level (0.1 to 10.0 micrometers (mm) or 100 to 10,000 nanometers (nm) wide) are better able to remain on your skin and not leach into the marine environment. These micro-sized particles are also unable to permeate the skin or blood-brain barriers within the body. Unfortunately, zinc oxide and titanium dioxide are being used more frequently at the nanoparticle size level (<100 nm) mainly due to their ability to rub in. Multiple studies have found that nano-sized Zinc oxide and titanium dioxide are significantly more toxic to marine life, and potentially humans, than their micro-sized counterparts.

The Risk of Nano-sized Minerals

For topical products (non-spray) toxicity is only an issue if that product is able to permeate the skin. Traditional zinc oxide and titanium dioxide used in products like natural sunscreen are “micro-sized”, which is unable to penetrate the skin. However, the use of smaller nanoparticles reduce the effectiveness at blocking UVA, may be able to permeate the skin, and even release free radicals. As of October 2017, there are no safety regulations on the use on nanoparticles. The EPA provides an impressive literature review of studies on nano-sized titanium dioxide.[26]

Human Health Impacts

The risks of nanoparticles to human health are somewhat controversial. Some studies have found that nano-sized titanium dioxide and zinc oxide[27] have been able to permeate the outer layer of the epidermis, and at times reach viable epidermal and even dermal cells, and then release free radicals. This is where cell damage (cytotoxicity) and potentially cell genome damage (genotoxicity) can occur. Topical application onto hairless mice showed that titanium dioxide was found in lung tissue, brain tissue, and spleen tissue after application for 60 days, with the titanium dioxide able to “cross the blood–brain barrier”. Meanwhile other studies have found that nanoparticles are not able to reach deeper layers of human skin and are therefore not toxic to human cells.[28]

Regardless, most manufacturers aim to avoid the photocatalytic effects (free radical releasing nature of the particles) by applying a silica based coating on zinc oxide and rutile titanium dioxide. As a note, titanium dioxide is an International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Group 2B Carcinogen, mainly from its ability to trigger cancer when inhaled by rats.[29] This is why consumers should avoid the use of any misting or spray products containing titanium dioxide.

Anatase titanium dioxide produces the greatest amount of superoxide anion radicals and OH free radicals - and therefore has the highest potential of causing cytotoxicity (damage to living cells). Toxic effects have also been seen in freshwater organisms from long-term exposure (several weeks), even without UV. Additionally, oil based titanium dioxide sunscreens have been shown to penetrate deeper into skin layers than water based. Coatings are meant to avoid the release of free radicals (or photoactivity) of minerals. Commonly used sunscreen nanoparticle coatings include silica, aluminium oxide, aluminium hydroxide, methicone, and polymethylacrylic acid. These coatings help capture the reactive radicals and prevent their formation by blocking contact between titanium dioxide, oxygen, and water.[30]

While coatings help prevent the release of free radicals from nanoparticles, they are not completely effective. For instance, silica-coated titanium dioxide still produced high rates of isopropanol oxidation (free radicals) when exposed to light. Coated zinc oxide, with poly(methacylic acid), had less cytotoxicity than uncoated zinc oxide, but higher genotoxicity.[31] Therefore, if there is the potential for particles to penetrate the skin, certain coatings can be applied to help with preventing toxicity, while the use of larger (micro) sized particles can avoid the need for additional metal and acid coatings.

Marine Health Impacts

Nano-sized titanium dioxide (both coated and uncoated) has been shown to have harmful impacts on marine life, especially fish. See EPA's literature review, Nanomaterial Case Studies: Nanoscale Titanium Dioxide in Water Treatment and in Topical Sunscreen, for a thorough summary of studies to date. Nano-sized zinc oxide has been shown to have harmful impacts on fish and coral reefs, causing coral bleaching at high concentrations, mainly due its ability to be soluble, separating into the more toxic zinc ions and reactive oxygen species (free radicals) when exposed to UV. A 2018 study found that nano-sized uncoated zinc oxide caused greater damage to and expulsion of zooxanthelae algae from healthy coral polyps (bleaching) than nano-sized titanium dioxide.[32] While a 2014 study found that nano-sized titanium dioxide caused greater damage to aquatic life, including crustaceans, than nano-sized zinc oxide.[33]

Aquatic Life Impacts of Nano-sized Titanium Dioxide[34]

  • Bioaccumulative
  • Increases uptake of other harmful contaminants including cadmium
  • Reduces reproduction in daphnids
  • Reduces fecundity of crustaceans[35]
  • Causes respiratory distress in rainbow trout
  • Damages gills and intestine of rainbow trout
  • Causes behavioral changes in fish rainbow trout
  • Coating is able to degrade in water, reducing protection from photocatalytic nature


Aquatic Life Impacts of Nano-sized Zinc oxide

  • Bioaccumulative
  • Causes bleaching of stony corals when uncoated[36]
  • Causes mortality of brine shrimp[37]
  • Reduces fecundity of crustaceans[38]
  • Reduces hatching rate of zebrafish[39]
  • Impairs development of zebrafish[40]
  • Reduces immunity of carp[41]
  • Causes oxidative stress of rainbow trout gills and liver[42]
  • Increases the concentration of released zinc ions when released in higher acidity waters (lower pH)[43]


Options for More "Reef Friendly" Sun Protection

Use Sun Management
As we’ve learned in this article, even mineral-based sunscreens can negatively impact fish and coral reefs, including microsized particles at high enough concentrations.[44] The best thing we can do is limit products when recreating in high use areas. Effective sun protection methods include a balance of:

  • Avoiding sun exposure during peak sun hours (10 am – 2 pm)
  • Covering up- Wear hats and clothing (can be UPF or even just regular)
  • Using a more ocean friendly sunscreen on exposed areas


Opt for a More "Reef Friendly" Sunscreen
Unfortunately the terms “Reef Safe” and “Reef Friendly” are not regulated, so there is not a clear requirement for naming a product as such. It's important to actually check the ingredients label to ensure that reef-harming chemicals are not included. At minimum, avoid the use of nano-sized mineral sunscreens and traditional sunscreens containing oxybenzone, octinoxate, or octocrylene, as these are chemical additives that have well documented harmful effects on a wide variety of marine wildlife. Learn more here. Remember to avoid the use of any spray or misting sunscreen products that contain titanium dioxide to prevent toxic effects from inhalation. For a list of some good options, see below!

List of "Reef Friendly" Sunscreens: Note this is not comprehensive

  • REN Clean Screen Mineral SPF 30 Mattifying Face Sunscreen (Active: uncoated 22% zinc oxide)
  • Badger Original Sunscreens - (active: uncoated zinc oxide 18.75%)
  • Raw Elements Tinted Moisturizer, face sticks, or lotions - (active: zinc oxide 23%)
  • Amavara Mineral Sunscreens - (active: zinc oxide 19% - 22.25 %)
  • Waxhead Zinc Oxide Sunscreen Stick - (active: zinc oxide 25%)
  • Bare Republic Mineral Sunscreen - (active: zinc oxide 3.7%, titanium dioxide 5.6%)
  • Goddess Garden Mineral Sunscreen - (active: zinc oxide 6%, titanium dioxide 6.4%)
  • TotLogic SPF30 Mineral Sunscreen - (active: zinc oxide 20%)
  • KLAR Pure zinc oxide - (active: uncoated zinc oxide 20%)
  • All Good lotions- (active: zinc oxide 12%)
  • Let it Block - (active: zinc oxide 5%, titanium dioxide 3%)
  • TropicSport lotions - (active: zinc oxide, 8.6%, titanium dioxide 4.55)
  • Goddess Garden Mineral Sunscreen - (active: zinc oxide 6%, titanium dioxide 6.4%)
  • Tropical Sands - (active: zinc oxide 6%, titanium dioxide 6%)
  • Coral Safe - (active: zinc oxide 6%, titanium dioxide 6%)
  • Christina Moss Naturals Sunscreen - (active: zinc oxide 6%, titanium dioxide 6%)
  • Stream2Sea lotions- (active: titanium dioxide 8.8%)


Advocate for Bans on Reef Harming Sunscreen Ingredients

In addition to changing our own actions to protect the marine environment, its also important to spread awareness about the issue to friends, family and community members. Ensure that your local stores are offering reef friendly sunscreen products, and encourage them to stop the sale of harmful products. Some areas have even gone as far as passing legislation banning the sale and use of toxic sunscreens. Could your town, state, or nation be next?

  • Hawaii Statewide Oxybenzone and Octinoxate Ban - Surfrider Hawaii chapters were extremely active in introducing and passing this legislation. Learn more here.
  • Palau Nationwide Ban on Ten Toxic Sunscreen Chemicals - Learn more here.
  • Aruba Nationwide Oxybenzone Ban
  • Bonaire Nationwide Oxybenzone and Octinoxate Ban - Learn more here.



Additional Surfrider Resources



Recent Scientific Publications

Risks to Marine Life

  • He et al. 2019. "Toxicological effects of two organic ultraviolet filters and a related commercial sunscreen product in adult corals." Environmental Pollution, Vol. 245, Pp. 462-47. Toxicity and bioaccumulation analysis of octinoxate (EHMC) and octocrylene (OC). "These results confirm the bioaccumulation potential of EHMC and OC and show that other ingredients in sunscreen products may increase the bioavailability of active ingredients to corals and potentially exacerbate toxicity."
  • Du et al. 2019. Harmful effect of nanoparticles on the functions of freshwater ecosystems: Insight into nanoZnO-polluted stream."' Chemosphere, Vol. 214, Pp. 830-838. Effect of zinc nanoparticle concentration on stream biodiversity and ecosystem functionality. "ZnO nanoparticles led to significant decreases in pH value of the decomposition environment, which had significant and positive relationships to the activities of dehydrogenase, glycine-aminopeptidase, N-acetylglucosaminidase, and acid phosphatase. Besides, 10 and 1000 mg/L ZnO nanoparticles led to lower fungal diversity, which was negatively related to the variability of decomposition."
  • El-Atti et al. 2018. "Effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii: Bioaccumulation, oxidative stress and histopathological biomarkers. Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research, Vol. 44, No. 4. Toxicity and bioaccumulation of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on crayfish, using a common water quality indicator species. "TiO2 NPs caused alteration in antioxidant activities and severe histopathological changes."
  • Stien et al. 2018. "Metabolomics reveal that octocrylene accumulates in Pocillopora damicornis tissues as fatty acid conjugates and triggers coral cell mitochondrial dysfunction." Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 90, No. 1, Pp. 990-995. Toxicity analysis of octocrylene to specific coral species. "Most polyps were closed at concentrations of 300 μg/L and higher. Further, metabolomic profiling provided crucial information regarding OC accumulation in coral tissues and OC toxicity...The formation of OC analogues suggests that OC concentrations measured in the environment, and organisms may have been largely underestimated."
  • Tsui et al. 2017. "Occurrence, distribution and fate of organic UV filters in coral communities." Environmental Science & Technology. Detection of oxybenzone (BP-3), octocrylene and ODPABA in coral tissues. "The results of a preliminary risk assessment indicated that over 20% of coral samples from the study sites contained BP-3 concentrations exceeding the threshold values for causing larval deformities and mortality in the worst-case scenario. Higher probabilities of negative impacts of BP-3 on coral communities are predicted to occur in wet season."

Risks to Human Health and Wellness

  • Long et al. 2019. "Maternal urinary benzophenones and infant birth size: Identifying critical windows of exposure." Chemosphere, Vol. 219, Pp. 655-651. Effect of bezophenones (including oxybenzone) on human fetus development. "Our findings indicate that maternal urinary levels of BPs in the early and late periods during pregnancy may have impacts on delayed fetal growth, and the effects were more pronounced in girls."
  • Pont et al. 2004. "Active ingredients in sunscreens act as topical penetration enhancers for the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid." Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Vol. 195, Pp. 348 – 354. Chemical sunscreen ingredients including oxybenzone were found to increase the ability of toxic herbicides to penetrate the skin.



References


  1. Tsui MMP, Leung HW, Wai TC, et al. Occurrence, distribution and ecological risk assessment of multiple classes of UV filters in surface waters from different countries. Water Res. 2014;67:55‐65
  2. Downs CA, Kramarsky‐Winter E, Segal R, et al. 2016. Toxicopathological effects of the sunscreen UV filter, oxybenzone (benzophenone‐3), on coral planulae and cultured primary cells and its environmental contamination in Hawaii and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. Vol 70, pp. 265‐288.
  3. Danovaro, R., Bongiorni, L., Corinaldesi, C., Giovannelli, D., Damiani, E., Astolfi, P., Greci, L. & Puscaeddu, A. 2008. Sunscreens Cause Coral Bleaching by Promoting Viral Infections. Environ Health Perspect. Vol. 116, No. 4, pp. 441–447.
  4. DiNardo, J. & Downs, C. 2018. Dermatological and environmental toxicological impact of the sunscreen ingredient oxybenzone/ benzophenone‐3. Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology, Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. 15-19.
  5. Downs CA, Kramarsky‐Winter E, Segal R, et al. Toxicopathological effects of the sunscreen UV filter, oxybenzone (benzophenone‐3), on coral planulae and cultured primary cells and its environmental contamination in Hawaii and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. Vol 70, pp. 265‐288.
  6. Downs CA, Kramarsky‐Winter E, Segal R, et al. Toxicopathological effects of the sunscreen UV filter, oxybenzone (benzophenone‐3), on coral planulae and cultured primary cells and its environmental contamination in Hawaii and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. Vol 70, pp. 265‐288.
  7. Downs, C. 2015. [https://www.capitol.hawaii.gov/MemberFiles/senate/espero/Documents/Hawaii_June_21_2016_DPH_with_video.pdf Local pollution factors reduce the resiliency of coral reefs: what they are and what to do about them: Fighting to Save Hawaii’s Coral Reefs]. Powerpoint presentation by Haereticus Environmental Laboratory to US Hawaii Legislature.
  8. Maipais et al. 2015. Sun lotion chemicals as endocrine disruptors. Hormones, Vol .14, No. 1
  9. Downs, et al. 2015. Toxicopathological Effects of the Sunscreen UV Filter, Oxybenzone (Benzophenone-3), on Coral Planulae and Cultured Primary Cells and Its Environmental Contamination in Hawaii and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Ecotoxicology, Vol. 23, No. 2
  10. Danovaro et al, 2008. Sunscreens Cause Coral Bleaching by Promoting Viral Infections. Environmental Health Perspectives Vol 116, No. 4
  11. Downs, et al. 2015. Toxicopathological Effects of the Sunscreen UV Filter, Oxybenzone (Benzophenone-3), on Coral Planulae and Cultured Primary Cells and Its Environmental Contamination in Hawaii and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Ecotoxicology, Vol. 23, No. 2
  12. Kunz et al. 2006. Comparison of In Vitro and In Vivo Estrogenic Activity of UV Filters in Fish. Toxicological Sciences, Vol. 90, No. 2
  13. Coronado et al. 2008. Estrogenic activity and reproductive effects of the UV-filter oxybenzone (2-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl-methanone) in fish. Aquatic Toxicology, Vol. 90, No. 3
  14. Gelsleichter, J., Manire, C., Szabo, N., Cortés, E., Carlson, J., & Lombardi-Carlson, L. 2005. Organochlorine concentrations in bonnethead sharks (Sphyrna tiburo) from Four Florida Estuaries. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. Vol 48, No. 4, pp. 474-83
  15. Morohoshi, K., Yamamoto, H., Kamata, R., Shiraishi, F., Koda, T., & Morita, M. 2005. Estrogenic activity of 37 components of commercial sunscreen lotions evaluated by in vitro assays. Toxicol In Vitro. Vol. 19, No. 4, pp. 457-69
  16. Downs, C. 2015. [https://www.capitol.hawaii.gov/MemberFiles/senate/espero/Documents/Hawaii_June_21_2016_DPH_with_video.pdf Local pollution factors reduce the resiliency of coral reefs: what they are and what to do about them: Fighting to Save Hawaii’s Coral Reefs]. Powerpoint presentation by Haereticus Environmental Laboratory to US Hawaii Legislature.
  17. Ibid, 2016
  18. Corinaldesi et al. 2017. Sunscreen products impair the early developmental stages of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. Scientific Reports, Vol. 7
  19. Ruszkiewicz et al. 2017. Neurotoxic effect of active ingredients in sunscreen products, a contemporary review. Toxicology Reports, Vol. 4
  20. Gago-Ferrero, P., Alonso, M., Bertozzi, C., Marigo, J., Barbosa, L., Cremer, M., Secchi, E., Azevedo, A., Lailson-Brito, J., Torres, J., Malm, O., Eliarrat, E., Diaz-Cruz, M., & Barcelo, D. 2013. First Determination of UV Filters in Marine Mammals. Octocrylene Levels in Franciscana Dolphins. Environmental Science and Technology.
  21. DiNardo, J. & Downs, C. 2018. [https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/jocd.12449 Dermatological and environmental toxicological impact of the sunscreen ingredient oxybenzone/ benzophenone‐3]. Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology, Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. 15-19.
  22. World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer. Some chemicals present in industrial and consumer products, food and drinking‐water Volume 101; IARC Monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risks to humans – Benzonphenone 2013, 101:285‐304. http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol101/mono101.pdf. Accessed August 30, 2017.
  23. DiNardo, J. & Downs, C. 2018. [https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/jocd.12449 Dermatological and environmental toxicological impact of the sunscreen ingredient oxybenzone/ benzophenone‐3]. Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology, Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. 15-19.
  24. CDC. 2009. Benzophenone-3 Fact Sheet. https://www.cdc.gov/biomonitoring/pdf/Benzophenone-3_FactSheet.pdf
  25. DiNardo, J. & Downs, C. 2018. [https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/jocd.12449 Dermatological and environmental toxicological impact of the sunscreen ingredient oxybenzone/ benzophenone‐3]. Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology, Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. 15-19.
  26. US EPA. 2010. Nanomaterial Case Studies: Nanoscale titanium dioxide in Water Treatment and in Topical Sunscreen. National Center for Environmental Assessment–RTP Division, Office of Research and Development
  27. Pandurangan, M. & Kim, D. 2015. In vitro toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles: a review. J Nanopart Res., Vol. 17.
  28. US EPA. 2010. Nanomaterial Case Studies: Nanoscale titanium dioxide in Water Treatment and in Topical Sunscreen. National Center for Environmental Assessment–RTP Division, Office of Research and Development
  29. World Health Organization International Agency for Research on Cancer. 2010. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans: Carbon Black, Titanium Dioxide, and Talc. Vol 93
  30. Smij, T., & Pavel, S. 2011. Titanium dioxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles in sunscreens: focus on their safety and effectiveness. Nanotechnol Sci Appl. Vol 4, pp. 95–112
  31. Carlotti ME, Ugazio E, Sapino S, Fenoglio I, Greco G, Fubini B. 2009. Role of particle coating in controlling skin damage photoinduced by titania nanoparticles. Free Radic Res. Vol. 43, pp. 312–322.
  32. Corinaldesi, C., Marcellini, F., Nepote, E., Damiani, E., & Danovaro, R. 2018. Impact of inorganic UV filters contained in sunscreen products on tropical stony corals (Acropora spp.). Sci Total Environ. 637-638:1279-1285.
  33. Tomilina, I., Gremyachikha, V., Grebenyuka, L., & Klevleevab, T. 2012. The Effect of Zinc oxide Nano and Microparticles and Zinc Ions on Freshwater Organisms of Different Trophic Levels. Inland Water Biology, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 88–96.
  34. US EPA. 2010. Nanomaterial Case Studies: Nanoscale Titanium Dioxide in Water Treatment and in Topical Sunscreen. National Center for Environmental Assessment–RTP Division, Office of Research and Development
  35. Tomilina, I., Gremyachikha, V., Grebenyuka, L., & Klevleevab, T. 2012. The Effect of Zinc oxide Nano and Microparticles and Zinc Ions on Freshwater Organisms of Different Trophic Levels. Inland Water Biology, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 88–96.
  36. Corinaldesi, C., Marcellini, F., Nepote, E., Damiani, E., & Danovaro, R. 2018. Impact of inorganic UV filters contained in sunscreen products on tropical stony corals (Acropora spp.). Sci Total Environ. 637-638:1279-1285.
  37. Ates, M., Daniels, J., Arslan, Z., Farah, I., & Riverac, H. 2013. Comparative evaluation of impact of Zn and ZnO nanoparticles on brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae: effects of particle size and solubility on toxicity. Environ Sci Process Impacts. No 1
  38. Tomilina, I., Gremyachikha, V., Grebenyuka, L., & Klevleevab, T. 2012. The Effect of Zinc oxide Nano and Microparticles and Zinc Ions on Freshwater Organisms of Different Trophic Levels. Inland Water Biology, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 88–96.
  39. Choi, J.S., Kim, R.O., Yoon, S., & Kim, W.K. 2016. Developmental toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles to zebrafish (Danio rerio): a transcriptomic analysis. PLoS One. Vol. 11, No. 8
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