State of the Beach/State Reports/SC/Beach Access
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According to Pogue and Lee (1999), South Carolina has pursued a planning program with the objective of providing public access and adequate parking facilities. In 1988, the South Carolina Code of Laws was amended to include new provisions that require state and local communities to prepare comprehensive beach management plans. Within these plans the issue of beach access and parking must be addressed. Each local comprehensive beach management plan must contain an inventory of public beach accesses and attendant parking, in addition to a plan for enhancing public access and parking.
According to the 2006 Assessment no regulatory changes have occurred within Department of Health and Environmental Control (DHEC) Ocean and Coastal Resource Management (OCRM); however, local governments have adopted public access ordinances since the last assessment.
Folly Beach hired a Code Enforcement officer to address encroachment issues associated with public beach access sites on the island. The city also instituted a program that resulted in additions to public access parking and improvements to public walkovers. Horry County passed an ordinance prohibiting overnight parking at all beach access sites, including street ends, thus restricting encroachent by adjacent private property owners.
In April 2002 SC Code of Laws, Title 48 - Environmental Protection and Conservation was amended to enact the "South Carolina Conservation Bank Act" for the purpose of making grants and loans to public or private entities to acquire interests in real property worthy of conservation.
DHEC's Critical Area Permitting Regulations provide guidelines for permitting the construction of bridges and docks to access the thousands of small islands off the South Carolina Coast. As stated in the document:
"(1)(a) South Carolina has several thousand coastal islands, including barrier islands, sea islands, back barrier islands and marsh hammocks. Almost all of these islands are surrounded by expanses of salt marsh, occasionally bordered by tidal creeks or rivers. Historically, few of these islands have been built upon or altered, and most have been protected by their remoteness and inaccessibility. In recent years, however, a trend toward greater potential for development of these islands has stimulated questions and concerns about the ecological significance of these islands. The South Carolina Department of Natural Resources conducted a field study of a number of non-barrier islands. Their report, An Ecological Characterization of Coastal Hammock Islands, December, 2004, has shown that these islands are unique ecosystems with diverse flora and fauna. That study recommends protection and buffering of important habitats and resources associated with these islands.
(b) Access to coastal islands by bridges or docks involves the placement of structures into critical area coastal tidelands and waters that are protected by the statute, the critical area regulations, and by the public trust doctrine.
(c) Construction of bridges within critical area tidelands and waters involves impacts on critical area coastal tidelands and coastal waters, including temporary damages to salt marsh and shellfish beds, temporary increased turbidity, permanent displacement of marshes by installation of pilings, and permanent shading of marsh.
(2)(a) The decision on whether to issue or deny a permit for a bridge to a coastal island must be made with due consideration of the impacts to the public trust lands, critical area, coastal tidelands and coastal waters, weighed against the reasonable expectations of the owner of the coastal island. Giving due consideration to these factors, the Department has determined that some islands are too small or too far from upland to warrant the impacts on public resources of bridges to these islands, and thus no permit for a bridge shall be issued.
(b) Bridge permits, other than non-vehicular bridges for access by the general public, will not be issued in areas of special resource value unless they qualify under the special exceptions in R.30-12.N(10). These are the ACE Basin Taskforce Boundary Area, the North Inlet National Estuarine Research Reserve, and the Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge.
(c) The Department will not consider applications for bridge access to islands less than two acres in size."
More on critical areas permitting.
Bridges are allowed, however, for islands greater than two acres, with a graduated maximum bridge length and width, depending on the size of the island.
Guidelines for dock construction are also specified in the regulations.
The Beachfront Management Act, S.C. Code Ann. § 48-39-250 et seq., establishes a requirement in section 48-39-350 that ocean beachfront counties and municipalities prepare local comprehensive beach management plans in coordination with SCDHEC-OCRM. These local comprehensive beach management plans must contain ten key elements. One of these elements is an inventory of public beach access points within the community’s jurisdiction, along with a plan for enhancing public access and parking. New guidelines developed by SCDHEC-OCRM in 2008 request that revisions of local plans now include a map along with a table of all existing access locations and associated amenities. A discussion of the extent and condition of each access point is requested, along with any restrictions on access or parking.
Local beach management plans for many coastal counties, cities and towns are available through the SCDHEC-OCRM website. Previous versions of local plans are available to view at the main SCDHEC-OCRM office in Charleston, or at the local county or municipal office. Public beach access information is also available through many local websites.
All beachfront land that is below mean high water is considered public lands in South Carolina.
Current data available indicate the total number of beachfront shoreline miles in South Carolina as 187 miles with 114 miles accessible to the public. The SC Coastal Management Program defines a stretch of beach as “accessible” to the public if the following are met: reasonable provisions are made for transportation facilities (i.e., parking), facilities are available year round, public walkways or access points to the beach are open and readily available, and access to the area is actually sought be members of the general public with reasonable frequency.
The South Carolina General Assembly created the Coastal Access Improvement Program (CAIP) in 1994 to provide a reliable funding source to improve public access. CAIP is funded annually with critical area permitting fees. The SCCMP administers the program, and the required match from local governments is used to provide some of the non-federal match for South Carolina’s CZMA cooperative agreement awards. Some of the CAIP projects completed in recent years include:
- City of North Myrtle Beach: constructed two ADA-accessible beach walkovers
- City of Folly Beach: renovated existing walkovers, resurfaced and designated 18 parking spaces, and cleared right-of-way that had been encroached at two public beach access sites
- Georgetown County: installed new signs, cleared overgrowth in the right-of-way, and renovated the parking area with pervious surface
- Town of Edisto Beach: installed boundary fencing at 15 beach access points and placed 12 new permanent trash receptacles
- Charleston County Park & Recreation Commission: replaced public restrooms at a county park with a facility meeting standards of the Americans with Disabilities Act.
DHEC awarded approximately $1.2 million in coastal access grants in 2012. The projects were:
- Horry County: three (3) beach access point renovations
- City of North Myrtle Beach: six (6) dune walkovers
- City of Myrtle Beach: six (6) dune walkovers
- Georgetown County: East Bay Boat Landing renovation
- Charleston County: water access and parking improvements along S.C. 174
- Charleston County Parks: McLeod Plantation promenade and waterfront access
- Town of Mount Pleasant: coastal resource interpretive signs for Shem Creek Park
- Town of Sullivan's Island: five (5) beach access walkways
- City of Folly Beach: East Ashley beach access renovations
- Town of Port Royal: Waterfront Promenade and boardwalk renovation
DHEC awarded more than $250,000 in coastal access grants in 2014. The projects were:
- The state is providing about $110,000 to North Myrtle Beach to improve access for the disabled at several locations and build a restroom facility. The project will also involve local funds.
- Myrtle Beach is getting nearly $90,000 from the state to replace dune walkover structures in several spots in a project that will also use local funds.
- Folly Beach will receive about $52,000 in state funds to go along with local money to improve a dune walkover and parking spaces for the disabled.
South Carolina completed a statewide inventory of public access sites in September 2006. The report Assessing Recreational Needs at South Carolina Beaches, was prepared by M. Grant Cunningham, Department of Planning, Clemson University for South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control, Ocean and Coastal Resource Management. The inventory included amenities such as parking, restrooms, showers, and prohibited or allowed activities (surfing, kite-boarding, dog walking, etc.). Unfortunately, this report does not seem to be available online.
The South Carolina Beachfront Jurisdiction web application was developed to enable efficient access to key information by coastal stakeholders and decision-makers. Users of the application can quickly navigate to specific beaches or properties, view state jurisdictional line locations and adopted long-term erosion rates. Technical users of the site may also download beachfront survey information packets, which contain jurisdictional line coordinates, adopted long-term erosion rates and survey monument locations.
In 2015 the South Carolina Dept. of Health and Environmental Control, Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management, released a new public beach access web and mobile application. The app can be accessed on your desktop, smart phone, or tablet. Users are able to easily search over 600 public beach access locations along the coast, including specific amenities. The amenities highlighted include parking, restrooms, showers, seasonal lifeguards, handicap access/parking, public transit, and beach parks. Every site listed has been field-verified by DHEC staff and data within the application will be updated on a regular basis.
There are several Local Comprehensive Beach Management Plans that have an inventory of public beach accesses along with a plan for enhancing public access and parking.
The 2006 Assessment indicates a total of 639 beach/shoreline access sites, 259 of which were state or locally designated perpendicular rights of way.
SC DHEC staff has indicated to Surfrider that there are about 650 public beach access sites in South Carolina. Averaged over the entire coastline there is approximately one access point every quarter mile, and for developed sections of the coastline that you can drive to the average is one access point every thousand feet.
The 2006 Assessment reports:
DHEC-OCRM utilizes several mechanisms to promote and improve public access within the eight-county coastal zone. In 2003, DHEC-OCRM Planning staff conducted a review of the Beachfront Management plans for thirteen county and municipal areas, in part to evaluate the status of public beach access. The review found that most communities were either in compliance or had made significant efforts to address the issues raised in the 1997 Beachfront Management Plan reviews. These issues included:
- Inadequate inventories of public beach access sites and parking areas
- Necessary improvements and enhancements to existing access sites
- Unmarked or inadequate parking at public access sites
- Encroachment by private property owners into public parking areas
- Limited handicapped accessible walkovers
Communities, such as Edisto Beach increased public access sites, improved existing sites with dune walkovers and handicapped access, notified property owners of encroachments, and adopted local Beach Access Management Plans. Here are the Beach Regulations for Edisto Beach. Folly Beach installed over 35 signs with information on beach access and rules and regulations, as well as issuing tickets for encroachment. The City also initiated a MAP (more Access and Parking) program that will address handicapped access with other objectives to improve public access. Georgetown County performed local surveys of public parking availability and evaluated access areas in need of improvement. The County prepared a 5-year Beach Improvement Plan and utilized local funding to reconstruct crossovers and handicap ramps, improve parking lots, and adequately mark beach access sites.
DHEC-OCRM often supports municipal and countywide improvements and initiatives through the Coastal Access Improvement Program (CAIP). CAIP is funded annually with critical area permitting fees, and awards are made to local goverments for public access improvement projects. Over the past five years, 24 projects have been funded under CAIP. These projects include activities such as additional or improved beach walkovers and facilities, construction of a new public waterfront park, and construction of a new public pier.
DHEC-OCRM has engaged in several efforts to quantitatively measure the status of public access and gauge progress in improving the number and quality of access sites. DHEC-OCRM is currently undertaking a recreational needs analysis, which will provide comprehensive baseline data on public access within the coastal zone. As part of this effort, DHEC-OCRM is forming a consortium of representatives from municipal and county governments, which will improve data sharing and provide a mechanism for routine updates on public access and other activities. Further, DHEC-OCRM is making improvements to its Environmental Facilities Information System (EFIS) to improve its ability to track permits for public access-related activities.
The 2006 Assessment identifies 94 state, county, and local parks.
South Carolina State Parks has a great site. Check out their Park Finder. Here, among other things, for each park you will find descriptions of individual park facilities and attractions, park history, park maps and photos, and driving directions. If you search for 'beaches' on their site you get this informative page. Information on county parks is available through the individual county websites.
Also check out the Official South Carolina Beaches website.
The SC Outdoor Recreational Plan (SCORP) is conducted by the SC Parks Recreation and Tourism and was updated in 2008. It is the State’s official outdoor recreation plan and serves as a guide to various federal, state and local governmental agencies and the private sector entities involved in recreation and natural resources planning and development.
The South Carolina Department of Natural Resources is another useful source of information.
The SC State Trails Program website provides current information on all nature trails within the state. The DNR maintains a list of coastal boat landings and piers by county and makes this information available on the Saltwater Recreational Fisheries website.
The City of Myrtle Beach has a detailed 91-page Beach Access Inventory consisting of a series of aerial photographs of beach access locations.
The city of North Myrtle Beach has budgeted $620,000 for street end improvements at 21st Avenue South, 15th Avenue South, Sixth Avenue South, and 50th Avenue North. Proposed features for the 21st Avenue's end include a bike rack, a shower, a bathhouse, benches, public restrooms, golf cart parking and parking spaces for cars. Improvements were made in 2005 to the street end access point at 39th Avenue North. The city wants to eventually have some type of park area at all of its 34 street ends.
An area where protection of piping plover habitat versus public beach access is an issue is on oceanfront parcels on Morris Island and the northern tip of Folly Beach. The Charleston County Park and Recreation Commission has conducted a study weighing what sort of development and public access should be allowed on the northern tip of Morris Island, also known as Cummings Point, and the northern end of Folly Beach, an abandoned Coast Guard site. The county already owns the Coast Guard site and is working with the Trust for Public Land and developer Bobby Ginn to manage Cummings Point, 62 acres on the island's undeveloped northern end just south of Fort Sumter.
Both Cummings Point and the northern tip of Folly are visited regularly by the public, but neither has clear signs or paths. Reportedly, some visitors who bring their dogs or off-road vehicles to Cummings Point are causing damage. The study shows which parts of the island are most sensitive, mostly because of the habitat they offer. The study also suggests options for providing access.
On Cummings Point, the two options are: Adding only a kiosk with a list of rules and an interpretive sign near Fort Sumter, or building a dock, a moldering toilet facility (one with no running water) and a boardwalk linking the dock with the beach. The boardwalk would follow the route of an old road bed. On Folly, the options include combinations of a trail system, signs, a large interpretive center with air conditioning and restrooms, a parking area and an overlook to the Morris Island Lighthouse across the inlet.
The SC Department of Natural Resources manages the protection of shorebirds and their habitat. Information regarding piping plovers can be obtained through that agency. The City of Charleston currently manages public use and access of Morris Island; and the northern tip of Folly Beach is under the authority of the Charleston County Parks and Recreation Commission. Information regarding management plans should be obtained from these entities.
Beach Attendance Records
Information on beach attendance in South Carolina was not readily available. SCDHEC-OCRM does not keep beach attendance records.
Hunting Island State Park took in 1.2 million visitors in 2002, a 162% increase since 1993.
Individual municipalities or counties may have beach attendance data.
Economic Evaluation of Beaches
Economic impact information can be found in the report Visitor Needs Assessment and Economic Analysis at South Carolina Beaches, beginning on page 59. The purpose of this study was to assist the office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management (OCRM), South Carolina Department of Health & Environment Control (SCDHEC) to better understand visitor information by conducting economic impact and valuation studies and visitors’ needs assessment in terms of public beach access and associated facilities and analysis of current and projected visitor trends. The report was written to help develop management strategies and priorities for improving such public access — including feasible alternative funding sources and strategies to acquire beachfront property and the long-term funding sources needed to develop and maintain the facilities in local and regional parks. The report found that in 2006 out-of-state visitors to South Carolina beaches were estimated to provide a direct impact of $1,254,465,052 ($1.25 billion), indirect business tax impact of $165,801,357, value added impact of $1,221,608,882, total output impact of $1,972,715,823, and employment impact of 32,575 jobs.
Additional economic impact and tourism information can be obtained through the South Carolina Department of Parks, Recreation and Tourism (SCPRT) website, here and here.
The 2001 Assessment reported that tourism is South Carolina's second largest industry and the coast generates 60% of this business. In 1998, coastal tourism had a statewide economic impact that totaled $7.5 billion in expenditures and output, generated $1.54 billion in wages and earnings, and gave 250,000 people a regular paycheck. In the same year, visitors to the coast spent $6.5 billion in the state and paid $500 million in state and local taxes. The state's economy is increasingly dependent on coastal development and tourism.
South Carolina's eight coastal counties for 1990 to 2000 saw:
- 28 percent population growth
- $40 billion in total economic output in 2000, 22 percent of the SC total
- 25 percent of all state employment growth
- 33 percent of all new private sector jobs in the state
- 25 percent of new jobs in fast growth industries (services, trade & finance, insurance & real estate)
Myrtle Beach's 2012 Beach Management Plan reports:
"The area hosts an estimated 15 million visitors annually. Visitors spend an average of $115 per person per day with average length of stay of 5 days, and group business travelers spend an average of $194 per person per day with an average length of stay of 3 days. Eighty-six percent of the visitors typically use their own car as their primary transportation. The Myrtle Beach International Airport reported 869,032 airport arrivals in 2010. Myrtle Beach and the Grand Strand attract a wide range of travelers with approximately 94 percent under the age of 65. Myrtle Beach and the Grand Strand attract middle-to-high income travelers. Visitor income has steadily increased over the years with 40 percent making over $100,000 annually (Myrtle Beach Area Chamber of Commerce Statistical Abstract January 2012). Along the Grand Strand, 30 percent of our visitors come from NC. Another 22 percent travel from NY, PA, OH and VA. The following are the 2008 top 10 states of visitor inquiry origin: NC, SC, VA, OH, PA, GA, NY, TN, WV, and MD. The SC Department of Parks, Recreation, and Tourism reports that Horry County collected $8.82 million in admissions tax and $13.67 million in accommodations tax in 2009. The SC Department of Revenue reports $7.65 billion in retail sales in Horry County in 2009. On average, every $84,225 spent by domestic travelers in SC during 2007 generated one job. Domestic travel expenditures in SC directly generated 115,200 jobs in 2007, an increase of three percent since 2006."
In 2002, Hunting Island State Park generated $2.1 million in revenues.
Overall state tourism contributed $9.7 billion to the state’s economy, generating 115,200 jobs in 2007.
NOAA's Office for Coastal Management (OCM) has written a discussion of the recreational value of beaches, in the context of beach fill projects. In 2009 OCM released Introduction to Economics for Coastal Managers, a basic introduction to economic ideas and methods that can be applied to coastal resource management. The economic concepts provided in this introduction are illustrated through several case studies. Other OCM/Digital Coast publications can be found here.
The following two websites provide information on the economic value of coasts and the ocean throughout the country.
The National Ocean Economics Program (NOEP) provides a full range of the most current economic and socio-economic information available on changes and trends along the U.S. coast and in coastal waters. You can download data on jobs and GDP associated with specific types of coastal activities for each coastal state. You also can download data on commercial fishing and landings. The NOEP made public their fully updated Non-Market Valuation website in September 2008. The largest database in the world of studies documenting the environmental and recreational values of ocean resources, the website now includes 1) an updated methodologies section, 2) frequently asked questions, 3) examples of how Non-Market valuation influences public policy, and 4) an expanded table summarizing valuation estimates from across the United States. In 2014 NOEP released an updated State of the U.S. Ocean and Coastal Economies - 2014, which points out that there is an imbalance between the economic importance of coasts and coastal oceans and the federal support for stewardship of these resources. According to the report, coastal states supply over 81 percent of American jobs and contribute $13 trillion to the economy, or 84 percent of GDP. More on this here. The National Ocean Economics Program previously released State of the U.S. Ocean and Coastal Economies - 2009, which presents time-series data compiled over the past 10 years that track economic activities, demographics, natural resource production, non-market values, and federal expenditures in the U.S. coastal zone on land and water. The report states that coastal states account for more than 80 percent of the U.S. economy. The most recent report released by NOEP is the State of the U.S. Ocean and Coastal Economies - 2016. The Center for the Blue Economy (CBE) at the Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey now houses the National Ocean Economics Program (NOEP).
The website of Restore America's Estuaries has a report The Economic and Market Value of Coasts and Estuaries: What's At Stake?. According to the report, U.S. coasts and estuaries that have been protected and managed in a sustainable way are worth billions. Beaches, coastal communities, ports, and fragile bays are economic engines that drive and support large sectors of the national economy. The report focuses on aspects of coasts and estuaries that are most dependent on ecologically healthy conditions. The authors also examined a growing body of research that reveals the economic consequences of environmental change in coastal and estuary ecosystems.
A report A Review and Summary of Human Use Mapping in the Marine and Coastal Zone was published in December 2010. This report was prepared by ERG for NOAA's Coastal Services Center. The report evaluated different methods and approaches to measure human uses of the coastal and marine environment. The uses were divided into 1) military and industrial uses, 2) consumptive uses (e.g., fishing) and 3) non-consumptive activities (e.g., swimming, surfing, kayaking).
The economic value of beaches can increase or decrease due to a number of factors, including beach width; the presence or absence of amenities such as parking, restrooms or lifeguard services; the suitability of the beach for activities such as surfing or swimming; and the presence or absence of pollution and beach litter. In June 2014 NOAA published an infographic on the high cost of marine debris based on the report Assessing the Economic Benefits of Reductions in Marine Debris: A Pilot Study of Beach Recreation in Orange County, California, which was prepared by Industrial Economics, Inc. for NOAA's Marine Debris Division. It found that having debris on the beach and good water quality are the leading factors in deciding which beach residents visit. Reducing marine debris by even 25 percent at beaches in and near Orange County, California, could save residents approximately $32 million during the summer by not having to travel long distances to other beaches. Beach characteristics were collected for 31 popular Southern California public beaches from San Onofre Beach to Zuma Beach. Orange County residents were also surveyed on their recreation habits, including how many day trips they took to the beach from June - August 2013, where they went, how much it cost them, and which beach characteristics are important to them. The results provided in an estimate if how much Orange County residents would potentially benefit, including how often they visit beaches and how much they would save in travel costs, over a summer season by reducing marine debris at some or all of these 31 beaches. The study focused on Orange County because of the number and variety of beaches, their importance to permanent residents, ease of access, and likelihood that marine debris would be present. Researchers believe that, given the results, the study could be modified for assessing similar coastal communities in the United States.
For additional general discussion of the economic impacts of beaches, please see the article Economic Impact of Beaches.
Perception of Supply and Demand
The 2001 Assessment indicated with respect to land acquisition that in the 12 years since the Beachfront Management Act was passed, both local and state governments have continued efforts to improve and better manage access to the oceanfront. These have included the acquisition of new sites, physical improvements to facilities, sign improvements, and better staffing and maintenance of facilities. The growth of the coastal population will continue the demand for more access facilities and for reasonably affordable beachfront visits.
Most past efforts of the OCRM have been spent on improving access to the oceanfront, a need demonstrated by the condition of facilities, lack of parking, and demand for improvements. However, great demand also exists for pedestrian and boating access into coastal bays, rivers, and creeks. Also demanded is access into the undeveloped areas of the coastal zone, although this must be balanced with resource protection.
The chief impediment to providing adequate access is cost. Waterfront property is expensive and is often exclusive in nature; increased public access is generally not highly desired by local beachfront residents. There are frequent conflicts over the use of the land, concentrating visitors into small areas. The usual problems are generated by heavy use of a limited space: litter, noise, behavioral problems, traffic, and stormwater runoff. Conflicts also exist between the protection of unique habitats and population use (i.e., turtle nesting beaches, rookeries, bird nesting areas). These are usually seasonal conflicts. Local beachfront management plans are required to consider the effect of one action on another, and to include measures to address the conflicts.
The last four years have seen emphasis on improving boating access, pedestrian access, nature trails, and fishing piers into coastal waters. The SCOCRMP recognizes the need to remain proactive in encouraging local governments to address such access issues. Assistance in the improvement and acquisition of more sites along the beach is an ongoing need. More community type parks are needed. The encroachment issue will have to be maintained as a high priority. Monitoring the condition of public access sites will continue to be a prime responsibility of both SCOCRMP and the local communities. The resource conservation preserves are underutilized assets that can offer recreational benefits. Rapid acquisition of lands has given the people of the state new resources. Low-impact recreation and visitation opportunities have not yet been developed, but can be if properly managed.
A recreational needs analysis of public beach access in SC was conducted in two phases. The first phase included an analysis of current and projected out-of-town visitor data and economic impacts. The report provided information on visitor demographics and satisfaction; current and projected user needs/demand for access; potential funding options for access; and economic impact and benefits of visitors. A June 2006 report was produced by Clemson University and is titled Visitor Needs Assessment and Economic Analysis at South Carolina Beaches.
A second phase of the recreational needs assessment was conducted to include attitudes and preferences of residents and local day-use visitors for shoreline access. The second phase focuses on assessing the perspectives of “locals” on the development and maintenance of additional beach access points and associated amenities. The report provides insight into 1) the extent of the need/demand for additional access, 2) the differences in preferences between residents and nonresidents, 3) the attitudes/perceptions of tourism development as a result of additional access, and 4) recommendations for effective management scenarios to minimize use conflicts. The May 2008 report was also produced by Clemson University and is titled “South Carolina Coastal Resident Needs Assessment and Economic Analysis at Local Beaches”.
Public Education Program
See the South Carolina Beachfront Jurisdiction website to zoom in on the coast and Local Coastal Management Plans.
Information on the South Carolina Adopt-a-Beach program can be found on the SCOCRM website.
Surfrider Foundation's Grand Strand Chapter in Myrtle Beach has partnered with SCOCRM in the Adopt-A-Beach program. Visit the Grand Strand Chapter's website for more information on how to participate in this program.
In addition to the SCOCRM website, the South Carolina Sea Grant website is a useful source of information on public education and outreach efforts in South Carolina.
Director, Coastal Services Division
SC DHEC - Ocean and Coastal Resource Management
P: 843-953-0251 / F: 843-953-0201
- Ashley Berry, Assistant Park Manager, as quoted in "State Works to Halt Island Erosion", by Kelly Morgan. Island Packet Online. December 10, 2003.
- Ray Stevens and Ashley Berry, Hunting Island State Park, as quoted in "State Works to Halt Island Erosion, by Kelly Morgan. Island Packet Online. December 2003.
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